Researchers at the National Cancer Institute examined different cancer prevalence rates in 171,274 men and 122,826 women between 1995 and 2011. The graph shows the number of cancer cases per person-year (horizontal axis) in both men and women—prevalence over time.The results show that men are 11 times more likely to have cancer than women - only 2 cases of esophageal cancer per 100,000-years in women compared to 22 in men

Men are at greater risk of cancer because of biology, not because they drink and smoke more, study says

Men drink and smoke more than women — but that’s not why they’re at higher cancer risk.

A major study has shown that biological differences are the real reason behind gender differences.

Understanding these differences may help improve prevention and treatment, the researchers said.

The study looked at 300,000 middle-aged and older adults who had been cancer-free for more than 15 years.

Men were more than twice as likely to have the disease compared to women — even after lifestyle factors were excluded.

“This suggests that there are inherent biological differences between men and women that influence susceptibility to cancer,” said lead investigator Sarah Jackson, PhD, an epidemiologist at the National Cancer Institute.

The researchers believe that differences in genes, hormones and the immune system all play a role.

Meanwhile, British scientists today called for all cancer patients to undergo genetic testing in order to provide them with the most effective drugs against their tumors.

Researchers at the National Cancer Institute examined different cancer prevalence rates in 171,274 men and 122,826 women between 1995 and 2011. The graph shows the number of cancer cases per person-year (horizontal axis) in both men and women—prevalence over time.The results show that men are 11 times more likely to have cancer than women – only 2 cases of esophageal cancer per 100,000-years in women compared to 22 in men

How Lifestyle Affects Your Cancer Risk - Based on Gender: A 2017 study by the American Cancer Society found that smoking, alcohol consumption, processed meats, and low fruit and vegetable intake pose a higher risk to men than women.For Women, Overweight, Inactivity, Low Fiber, and HPV Are More Likely to Get Cancer

How Lifestyle Affects Your Cancer Risk – Based on Gender: A 2017 study by the American Cancer Society found that smoking, alcohol consumption, processed meats, and low fruit and vegetable intake pose a higher risk to men than women.For Women, Overweight, Inactivity, Low Fiber, and HPV Are More Likely to Get Cancer

Overall, smoking causes more than a quarter of all cancers, while being overweight and drinking is the next most dangerous lifestyle factor that can be avoided

Overall, smoking causes more than a quarter of all cancers, while being overweight and drinking is the next most dangerous lifestyle factor that can be avoided

In the UK, around 182,000 women are diagnosed with cancer each year, rising to 193,000 among men.

In the United States, 970,000 men and 928,000 women are diagnosed with cancer each year.

NCI researchers examined the incidence of 21 cancers in 171,274 men and 122,826 women.

Participants were aged 50 to 71, and their records were monitored between 1995 and 2011.

Factors that increase cancer risk

age

For most people, increasing age is the biggest risk factor for cancer. In general, people over the age of 65 are at the greatest risk of developing cancer. Those under the age of 50 are at a much lower risk.

family history

Cancer is common, and most people have relatives with cancer. It is often feared that having a family history of cancer greatly increases the risk of developing cancer. But less than 1 in 10 cancers are linked to a strong family history of cancer​​.

smokes

In the UK, more than a quarter of cancer deaths (over 25%) are caused by smoking.

Breathing in the smoke of others (passive smoking) also increases the risk of cancer.

Alcohol

Drinking alcohol increases the risk of oral and throat cancer. But it has also been linked to other cancers.

In general, the more you drink, the higher your risk. Your risk is higher if you also smoke.

overweight or obese

Being overweight increases the risk of many types of cancer, including bowel, kidney, uterine, and esophageal (esophageal) cancers. Women who are overweight and have gone through menopause also have a higher risk of breast cancer.

Maintaining a healthy weight can reduce your risk of cancer and other health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes.

The findings, published in the journal Cancer, showed that 17,951 cancers were detected in men, compared with 8,742 in women.

Thyroid and gallbladder cancers are more common in women, but all other cancers are more common in men.

They didn’t look at sex-specific cancers — such as uterine or prostate cancer.

Men are 11 times more likely to develop esophageal cancer and four times more likely to develop stomach or throat cancer.

They were also three times more likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer.

Further analysis found that men were still more likely to develop cancer overall when other risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and exposure to carcinogens were taken into account.

Scientists have previously noted higher rates of smoking, alcohol consumption and exposure to chemicals such as asbestos in factories.

They also said men may be less likely to seek medical advice.

The research team proposes that the male hormone testosterone may increase the likelihood of skin, prostate and liver cancers in men by promoting cell growth.

At the same time, they say, women appear to develop stronger immune responses to cancer-causing infections (those that can lead to cancer, such as hepatitis and HPV), which can reduce their risk of certain cancers compared to men.

Research has shown that women have additional cancer-preventing genes compared to men, which could provide them with further protection.

“Our findings suggest differences in cancer rates that cannot be explained by environmental exposures alone,” said study leader Dr. Sarah Jackson, an epidemiologist at the National Cancer Institute.

Scientists today called on the NHS to provide genetic analysis for all cancer patients to determine which drugs are most effective for their tumors.

Once diagnosed, Britons should be offered biomarker tests to shape their care and track how their disease evolves, according to a consensus statement from the Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) and nine other organisations.

These tests look for genetic, protein or imaging “markers” that can identify cancer’s weaknesses and can match patients to treatments for which they are most likely to respond.

It is “critical” that these tests are available to medical staff, but “regulatory processes and resources have not kept pace with the science”, so they are not always performed.

Cancer Research UK, the British Pharmaceutical Industry Association, AstraZeneca and Leukemia UK also signed the statement.

The group called for genetic analysis at diagnosis and at regular intervals to become a ‘standard’ within the NHS so that patients could receive personalised treatment.

Biomarker tests should be developed alongside cancer drugs, and regulations should be reformed to make it easier to evaluate and approve use, they said.

Scientists acknowledge the costs of making and developing these tests are high, but say it would be more cost-effective for health services to target the treatments to those most likely to respond.

Scientists believe that men prefer to drink more alcohol and smoke more cigarettes than women, which is why their cancer rates are higher overall.But now a major National Cancer Institute study of 300,000 Americans shows that biology makes men more likely to develop cancer, not bad health habits

Scientists believe that men who prefer to drink more alcohol and smoke more cigarettes than women account for their higher rates of cancer overall.But now a major National Cancer Institute study of 300,000 Americans shows that biology makes men more likely to develop cancer, not bad health habits

Sally Hayton, 57, from Manchester, coughed in early 2013 but was told after a lung scan there was nothing to worry about.

By November, she was starting to lose sight in her right eye.An optician referred her to the emergency room, where doctors discovered she had stage 4 lung cancer and a secondary tumor behind her eye

Ms Hayden said: “It was a complete shock. I’m 49 and I’ve never smoked.

She was told she had only 10 months to live, but her tissue samples were sent to a lab to test for biomarkers.

It turned out that she had a mutation in the ALK gene. This means Ms. Haydn can be matched to an effective targeted treatment for more than four years.

She was then moved to another targeted treatment she had been on for more than three years.

Ms Hayden added: “Biomarker testing can be life-changing. Before I started targeted therapy, I had chemotherapy and the side effects varied widely.

‘This is essential for biomarker testing to become mainstream. If a mutation emerges and has a specific treatment, that could give people extra time and a better quality of life.

Professor Christian Herring, ICR’s chief executive, said: “We believe every cancer patient should have the opportunity to have their cancer molecularly analysed to assess biomarkers that can provide insights into how best to treat important clues to their disease.

“Biomarker testing could precisely direct treatment to the patients who would benefit most, which could both improve patients’ lives and increase the cost-effectiveness of NHS treatment.

“It is critical that regulations governing clinical trials and approving new tests and treatments keep pace with rapidly evolving science.

“Currently, it is difficult to develop, approve and deliver new biomarker tests for patients. This in turn hinders companies and academia from developing new biomarkers to guide future treatments.

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